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The bladder lies in the pelvis, above and behine the pelvic bone. Urine is constantly produced by the kidneys, and flows from the kidneys into the bladder via the ureters. It stretches to take in more liquid and stores urine until a person is ready to go to the toilet, when the urethra then carries it out of the body during urination.
This flow, from the bladder to the urethra is controlled by the urethral sphincters, which open and close the blader outlet. The sphincters, in turn, are controlled by the pelvic floor muscles.
The healthy bladder expels urine in a controlled, usually voluntary fashion, and the average person urinates 4-8 times a day.
Urinary Frequency - the need to urinate often
Nocturia - having to get up at night to urinate
Urgency - urgent need to pass urine
Urinary Incontinence - leaking before managing to get to a toilet
Urinary Retention - urgent need to urinate but inability to start flow
Haematuria - passing of blood in the urine
Urinary Tract Infections / Cystitis - discomfort and pain when passing urine with urgency
Bladder Cancer - tumours growing in the bladder
Urinary Stones - formed in the kidneys, moving to the bladder, blocking urine flow and causing pain
- This is a basic routine test, the first part being a dipstick, which if initial results are abnormal the urine is
then looked at under a microscope.
- A narrow tube is passed through the urethra into the bladder. A light and camera allow the doctor to
diagnose and treat bladder problems.
- A series of urination tests measuring urine flow, pressure, bladder capacity and other measurements to
help identify bladder problems.
Uromune UTI Vaccine